N Engl J Med. 2020;383(12):1117–28.
LN occurs in 25–60% of patients with SLE. However, patients with LN are often excluded from clinical trials of SLE therapies.
A Randomized, Controlled Double-Blind Study Comparing The Efficacy And Safety Of Dose-Ranging Voclosporin With Placebo In Achieving Remission In Patients With Active Lupus Nephritis
Kidney Int 2019;95:219–31
Calcineurin inhibitors have the potential to increase the likelihood of complete renal remission (CRR) when added to standard-of-care induction therapy for LN.
This international Phase 2 study aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of baricitinib, an oral JAK-1 and -2 inhibitor, in patients with SLE who were not adequately controlled despite standard background therapy.
Anifrolumab, an Anti-Interferon-α Receptor Monoclonal Antibody, in Moderate-to-Severe Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
Arthritis Rheumatol 2017;69:376–86
One of the challenges of treating SLE is the limited efficacy and poor tolerability of current therapies.
Long-term Organ Damage Accrual and Safety in Patients with SLE Treated with Belimumab Plus Standard of Care
Both active disease and medication toxicity can result in the accrual of long-term organ damage in SLE.
Immunosuppressive therapy in lupus nephritis: the Euro-Lupus Nephritis Trial, a randomized trial of low-dose versus high-dose intravenous cyclophosphamide.
Arthritis Rheum. 2002;46(8):2121–31.
Cyclophosphamide (with AZA) produces good long-term results in LN.
Arthritis Rheumatol . 2018 Jun;70(6):868-877
This long-term Phase 3 study confirmed the safety and efficacy of belimumab in patients with SLE.
N Engl J Med. 2011;365(20):1886–95
MMF was superior to AZA in maintaining a renal response and preventing relapse in patients with LN who had a response to induction therapy.